Overview and summary of my recent journal articles, book chapters, policy briefs and working papers. Most are published open access.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Duursma, Allard; Corinne Bara; Nina Wilén, (2023) UN Peacekeeping at 75: Achievements, Challenges, and ProspectsInternational Peacekeeping, online first. Doi:10.1080/13533312.2023.2263178.

Indonesian Army courtesy photo

This forum article brings together academics, UN officials, and other practitioners to assess the achievements and challenges of UN peacekeeping over the past 75 years. The article is structured into six thematic sections: (1) principles of UN peacekeeping; (2) protection of civilians; (3) the primacy of politics; (4) early warning; (5) partnership peacekeeping; and (6) the changing geopolitical landscape in which UN peacekeeping operates.

Open Access!

See also my short policy brief on the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping and current challenges.

Schumann, Maurice P. & Corinne Bara (2023) A New Era: Power in Partnership Peacekeeping, International Studies Quarterly 67(3).

AU-UN IST PHOTO / Stuart Price

The UN frequently conducts peacekeeping in partnership with regional organizations, ad-hoc coalitions of states, and even single states. Despite the many challenges of this cooperation on the ground, we find in this study that parallel deployments of UN and partner missions are effective in curbing battle violence – more effective than peacekeeping by any actor alone.

Open Access!

See also our IPI Global Observatory brief on our findings and their policy implications.

Hellmüller, Sara; Xiang-Yun Rosalind Tan & Corinne Bara (2023) What is in a Mandate? Introducing the UN Peace Mission Mandates Dataset, Journal of Conflict Resolution, 68(1).

U.S. Marine Corps / Lance Cpl. Adam Montera

UN peace operations are constantly evolving. Yet, we lack a detailed understanding of their shifting objectives. To address this gap, we present the UN Peace Mission Mandates (UNPMM) dataset with information on 41 mandate tasks, including not only peacekeeping operations, but political missions and Special Envoys/Advisors. We use it to highlight how peace operations have changed since the end of the Cold War, and what factors influence the kind of missions the UN is willing to authorize.

Open Access!

Download the UNPMM Data

Bara, Corinne and Govinda Clayton (2022) Your Reputation Precedes You: Ceasefires and Cooperative Credibility During Civil Conflict, Journal of Conflict Resolution, online first. Doi:10.1177/0022002722112672.

UN Photo / Martine Perret

Ceasefires involving the conflict government can have positive repercussions beyond the parties who sign them, at times encouraging other rebels in the country to sign ceasefires in turn or deescalate fighting. We believe this is because states who enter into and honor ceasefires develop a cooperative reputation that other rebel groups look to when deciding on whether to cease fire.

Open Access!

Replication Data

Clayton, G.; H.M. Nygård; H. Strand; S.A. Rustad; C. Wiehler; T. Sagård; P. Landsverk; R. Ryland; V. Sticher; E. Wink; C. Bara (2022) Introducing the ETH/PRIO Civil Conflict Ceasefire Dataset, Journal of Conflict Resolution, online first. Doi:10.1177/00220027221129183.

UN Photo / Martine Perret

Introduction to the first global dataset on ceasefires in civil wars, 1989-2020. In total, the data include more than 2000 ceasefires across 66 countries and 109 conflicts, ranging from verbal arrangements to detailed written agreements. The data provide an empirical basis to assess the conditions that give rise to ceasefires, how ceasefires affect the dynamics of violence, and the role of a ceasefire in the peace process.

Open Access!

Bara, Corinne and Joakim Kreutz (2022) To Buy a War but Sell the Peace? Mercenaries and Post-Civil War Stability, Security Studies 31(3): 417-445.

What are the long-term consequences of the use of private military and security companies (PMSCs) and mercenaries in civil wars? In this article, we show that when PMSCs have taken part in combat, the risk that civil war resumes is greater. Though the actual PMSC forces may withdraw as their contract ends, the legacy of their use will accentuate uncertainty in the postwar society.

Open Access!

Bara, Corinne; Annekatrin Deglow & Sebastian van Baalen (2021) Civil War Recurrence and Postwar Violence: Toward an Integrated Research Agenda, European Journal of International Relations 27(3): 913-935.

In this paper we use citation network analysis to show that research on war recurrence and postwar violence happens in distinct scholarly communities. We advocate for a more integrated study of different forms of violence after war, and present an analytical framework to give a boost to such research… and some research ideas! The framework also works for violence during war, where different forms of political violence are also mostly studied in isolation rather their interrelationships.

Open Access!

Bara, Corinne; Govinda Clayton & Siri Aas Rustad (2021) Understanding Ceasefires, International Peacekeeping 28(3): 329-340.

Photo by: Maurice Schumann

This is the introduction to our Special Issue on ceasefire agreements, featuring insights by researchers, practitioners, and policymakers on how we can better understand and design ceasefires.

Open Access!

Bara, Corinne & Lisa Hultman (2020) Just Different Hats? Comparing UN and Non-UN Peacekeeping, International Peacekeeping 27(3): 341-368.

Regional peacekeeping operations are equally effective as the UN in mitigating violence against civilians by governments, but not by rebels/militias. New data, and Open Access!
Replication Data

Bara, Corinne (2020) Shifting targets: the effect of peacekeeping on postwar violence, European Journal of International Relations 26(4): 979-1003.

Photo by: MONUSCO

UN Police are essential in mitigating various forms of violence in the aftermath of war, while UN troops struggle to contain violence by armed actors other than the former combatants. Open Access!
Replication Data

Bara, Corinne (2018) Legacies of Violence: Conflict-specific Capital and the Post-conflict Diffusion of Civil War, Journal of Conflict Resolution 62(9)

This article won the 2019 NEPS MEDAL for the best publication in Peace Science.

An UZI 9-mm submarine gun and AK-47 assault rifles seized during the multi-service, multinational Operation urgent fury

Civil wars are most likely to spread to neighboring countries after their termination at home as a sudden surplus of weapons, combatants, and rebel leaders has the potential to destabilize the neighborhood.
Replication Data /
Read if you have no JCR access

Bara, Corinne (2014) Incentives and Opportunities: A Complexity-oriented Explanation of Violent Ethnic Conflict, Journal of Peace Research 51(6)

This article won the 2014 Nils Petter Gleditsch JPR Article of the Year Award. Read the Jury Announcement.

Publications Corinne Bara peer-reviewed articles

In this article I bridge the gap between incentive- and opportunity-oriented explanations of conflict onset by looking at the complex interplay of both to map multiple paths to ethnic conflict.
Replication Data /
Read if you have no JPR access
Blog post: Abandon the greed-grievance debate

Book Chapters

Bara, Corinne (2022) Non-UN Peacekeeping, in: Dorussen, Han: Handbook on Peacekeeping and International Relations. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 102-117.

Photo by AMISOM

In this book chapter I review what we know about peacekeeping by regional organizations and coalitions of states. I discuss why it can be harder to distinguish between peacekeeping and one-sided military intervention if a mission does not operate under the UN flag. I ask what factors influence the deployment of non-UN missions, and what impact such missions have on peace and stability, especially when compared to UN missions. I also assess whether some of the most prominent findings on the impact of UN peacekeepers can be extended to non-UN missions.

Bara, Corinne (2020) Forecasting Civil War and Political Violence, in: A. Wenger, U. Jasper & M. Dunn Cavelty: The Politics and Science of Prevision: Governing and Probing the Future. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 177-193.

publications Corinne Bara book chapter prediction forecasting

In this book chapter I offer an accessible overview of efforts to predict civil wars and other forms of political violence, with critical reflections on the policy impact and ethical implications of forecasting. Open Access!

Policy Briefs

Bara, Corinne and Maurice P. Schumann (2023) Partnership Peacekeeping Works: What Does this Mean in a Divided World? IPI Global Observatory. New York: International Peace Institute (IPI).

Pierre Holtz for UNICEF

In 2015, then-Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon remarked that the UN had “entered an era of partnership peacekeeping.” And, indeed, in the past three decades, the UN has frequently conducted peacekeeping in partnership with regional organizations, ad-hoc coalitions of states, and even single member states. This piece reviews our research findings that parallel deployments of UN and partner missions are effective in curbing battle violence—more effective than peacekeeping by any actor alone. It also discusses the role the UN will play in the global partnership for peacekeeping in the near future.

Bara, Corinne (2023) UN Peacekeeping. CSS Analyses in Security Policy, No. 330. ETH Zürich: Center for Security Studies (CSS).

REUTERS/Thomas Mukoya

The 75th anniversary of UN peacekeeping is cause for celebration. Research shows that UN troops can effectively curtail violence in wars between and within states. Yet, peacekeeping has always been shaped
by the geopolitical landscape, and the renewed great power competition coupled with antiliberal tendencies worldwide are a formidable challenge for the organization.

PhD Thesis

Bara, Corinne (2016) The Onset and Diffusion of Civil War: Complexity and Temporal Dynamics (2016). Doctoral Thesis, ETH Zürich.

The dissertation contributes to comparative civil war research by theorizing and modeling aspects of complexity and temporal dynamics so far neglected in research on conflict onset and spread.